New agents for neuroprotection – Review

personАвтори: L. Peychev, M. Shishmanova


The concept of neuroprotection is the administration of some agent, which should reverse some of the damage or prevent further damage. Some agents offer protection against cell degeneration to the neuronal cells. Still other agents specifically protect the dopamine neurons and the retina. The majority of neuroprotective agents are antioxidants. A vast amount of circumstantial evidence implicates oxygen-derived free radicals (especially superoxide and hydroxyl radical) and high-energy oxidants (such as peroxynitrite) as mediators of inflammation, shock, and ischemia/reperfusion injury. The aim of this review is to describe recent developments in the field of oxidative stress research. An immunosuppressive calcineurin inhibitor, NOS inhibitor, sigma-1 modulator, AMPA-antagonist and Ca2+-channel blocker have all shown neuroprotective activity. An estrogen agonist and two glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists also exhibit neuroprotective activity. Most of the synthetic compounds presented were not originally designed as neuroprotective agents but were found to possess neuroprotective activity in later studies. Many of these compounds are biologically active natural products, either plant extracts or endogenous peptides.

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